Monday, April 23, 2018

Articolul in Limba Americana: Lui Viorel Iagher: Prima lectie este despre Articolul Indefinit si Definit, Plus Abrevierile in Americana; Articles: A Complete Grammar Guide | Grammarly

Articles: A Complete Grammar Guide | Grammarly: "



What Are Articles?

Articles are words that define a noun as specific or unspecific. Consider the following examples:
After the long day, the cup of tea tasted particularly good.
By using the article the, we’ve shown that it was one specific day that was long and one specific cup of tea that tasted good.
After a long day, a cup of tea tastes particularly good.
By using the article a, we’ve created a general statement, implying that any cup of tea would taste good after any long day.
English has two types of articles: definite and indefinite. Let’s discuss them now in more detail.

The Definite Article

The definite article is the word the. It limits the meaning of a noun to one particular thing. For example, your friend might ask, “Are you going to the party this weekend?” The definite article tells you that your friend is referring to a specific party that both of you know about. The definite article can be used with singular, plural, or uncountable nouns. Below are some examples of the definite article the used in context:
Please give me the hammer.
Please give me the red hammer; the blue one is too small.
Please give me the nail.
Please give me the large nail; it’s the only one strong enough to hold this painting.
Please give me the hammer and the nail.

The Indefinite Article

The indefinite article takes two forms. It’s the word a when it precedes a word that begins with a consonant. It’s the word an when it precedes a word that begins with a vowel. The indefinite articleindicates that a noun refers to a general idea rather than a particular thing. For example, you might ask your friend, “Should I bring a gift to the party?” Your friend will understand that you are not asking about a specific type of gift or a specific item. “I am going to bring an apple pie,” your friend tells you. Again, the indefinite article indicates that she is not talking about a specific apple pie. Your friend probably doesn’t even have any pie yet. The indefinite article only appears with singular nouns. Consider the following examples of indefinite articles used in context:
Please hand me a book; any book will do.
Please hand me an autobiography; any autobiography will do.

Exceptions: Choosing A or An

There are a few exceptions to the general rule of using a before words that start with consonants and an before words that begin with vowels. The first letter of the word honor, for example, is a consonant, but it’s unpronounced. In spite of its spelling, the word honor begins with a vowel sound. Therefore, we use an. Consider the example sentence below for an illustration of this concept.
My mother is a honest woman.
My mother is an honest woman.
Similarly, when the first letter of a word is a vowel but is pronounced with a consonant sound, use a, as in the sample sentence below:
She is an United States senator.
She is a United States senator.
This holds true with acronyms and initialisms, too: an LCD display, a UK-based company, an HR department, a URL.

Article Before an Adjective

Sometimes an article modifies a noun that is also modified by an adjective. The usual word order is article + adjective + noun. If the article is indefinite, choose a or an based on the word that immediately follows it. Consider the following examples for reference:
Eliza will bring a small gift to Sophie’s party.
I heard an interesting story yesterday.

Indefinite Articles with Uncountable Nouns

Uncountable nouns are nouns that are either difficult or impossible to count. Uncountable nouns include intangible things (e.g., information, air), liquids (e.g., milk, wine), and things that are too large or numerous to count (e.g., equipment, sand, wood). Because these things can’t be counted, you should never use a or an with them—remember, the indefinite article is only for singular nouns. Uncountable nouns can be modified by words like some, however. Consider the examples below for reference:
Please give me a water.
Water is an uncountable noun and should not be used with the indefinite article.
Please give me some water.

'via Blog this' Abbreviations for Courtesy Titles and Academic Degrees Titles such as mister, miss, and doctor, as well as the names of academic degrees such as bachelor of arts and doctor of philosophy are almost always abbreviated. In American English, title abbreviations are followed by a period; in British English, the period is omitted. The most common title abbreviations include: Mr. = Mister Mrs. = Mistress (pronounced “missus”) Ms. = (pronounced “miss” or “miz”) Sr. = Senior Jr. = Junior Dr. = Doctor Mr. Green asked Ms. Grey if she had met Dr. Jekyl. (American style) Mr Green asked Ms Grey if she had met Dr Jekyl. (British style) The most common academic degree abbreviations include: B.S. = Bachelor of science B.A. = Bachelor of Arts M.A. = Master of Arts M.B.A. = Master of Business Administration Ph.D. = Doctor of Philosophy The periods are optional with abbreviations of academic degrees. Follow whichever style your style guide recommends, or just choose one and use it consistently. When an academic degree is used like a title, it follows a person’s name and is set off by commas: Molly Beagle, Ph.D., runs the canine cognition lab at Stanford University. Latin Abbreviations There is a small handful of abbreviations for Latin terms that are used (and misused) frequently in English writing. Use periods with these abbreviations. e.g.: exempli gratia It means “for example.” Use e.g. when you want to provide specific examples of a generalization. We expect volunteers from many surrounding cities, (e.g., Springfield, Oakdale, Hogsmeade.) i.e.: id est It means “that is.” Use i.e. when you want to provide more specific information about something you mentioned. After a reasonable amount of time has passed—i.e. two business days—please report the missing shipment to our customer service department. etc.: et cetera It means “and so forth.” Use it when you’re providing a partial list of details. You should see the doctor when you have flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, etc.) Other Common Abbreviations Below are a few other abbreviations that are common in English. Remember that abbreviations are not always completely standardized. One style guide may advise you to abbreviate Thursday as Thurs. while another may argue for Thu. Likewise, some style guides allow you to omit the periods with these abbreviations, but it’s never wrong to include periods. So if you aren’t sure whether to use the periods, err on the side of leaving them in. Times and dates a.m. (ante meridiem) = before noon p.m. (post meridiem) = after noon The mall opens at 10 a.m. and closes at 8 p.m. Jan., Feb., Mar., Apr., May, Jun., Jul., Aug., Sep., Oct., Nov., Dec. I was born on Nov. 6, 1980. Mon., Tues., Wed., Thurs., Fri., Sat,. Sun. The class will run Mon.-Fri. next week. Places U.S. (United States) U.K. (United Kingdom) E.U. (European Union) U.A.E. (United Arab Emerates) The U.S. highway system seems enormous to visitors from the U.K. Units of Measurement in. (inches) ft. (feet) lbs. (pounds) mm. (millimeters) cm. (centimeters) m. (meters) mg. (milligram) g. (gram) kg. (kilogram) My cat weighs 10 lbs., which is about 4.5 kg.
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