Friday, December 29, 2017

Text To AUDITION with Eastern European Accent; Audiobook Creation Exchange (ACX)

Audiobook Creation Exchange (ACX):

Olga
Magdalena Lazín, Biography[1]
(PROFMEX
and
UCLA)

INTRODUCTION
I was born in a stupendous
Transylvanian, (North Western Romanian) town called “Satu-Mare”, or the Big
Village, on the Hungarian border. At age three, my mother was transferred by
her employer (The Logging Company in Viseul de Sus, Maramures County) to
Sighet, in Maramures County. Thus, my parents and I moved to the isolated Transylvanian
town of Sighet, where I grew up like Alice in Wooden land, in a pristine region
behind the mountain of Gutinul. My country was an ancient forest, where
vampires and wolverines were lurking at the cover of the dark winter nights.
    On the one hand, I was friends with the
children of intellectuals, as well as also lovely Romanian, Hungarian, and Gipsy
children to whom I taught the Romanian language as early as the first and
second grade. I was speaking three languages when I was 5, and was reading precociously
the daily local newspapers by 6. I was awakened by all these minority children to
teaching them, as in my youthful mind we had to be at par in learning and reading,
and because I felt lucky with a great sense of responsibility for the
    On the other hand, my family had a
difficult life because my parents were always working until late hours at
night. My younger brother Alex and I read while waiting for mother, Magdalena,
to arrive turn off our lights even as she continued into the wee hours her
accounting work at home. She was compounding the lengths and width of the
wooden logs that were being exported to Russia year by year.
     During the day, Magdalena let us play all
day long to our heart’s content. So unique, and we felt so free exploring
nature in Sighet. When I entered primary school, I learned
that
Sighet was officially named Sighetu Marmației (
on Romania’s northwest
border facing Ukraine’s southwestern border with Romania and Hungary).
     In 1973, at age 10 as a fifth grader, I
had to make a fateful decision about my choice of foreign-language study:
Russian or English. The pressure was on us to take up Russian, this proving
that we were all students loyal to the Dictator Nicole Ceausescu’s “Socialist”
Government (read Romanian Communist Government allied with Moscow), but
consciously I detested that

system. Although I wanted
to learn English, I did not then how fateful that choice would be until 1991,
when at almost 27 years of age, I met Jim Wilkie who had been advised by his
brother Richard to include my town of Sighet in his journey to assess the how
Eastern Europe was faring after the fall of the “Berlin Wall,” short for the
long wall that kept the people of Communist countries locked and unable to
escape. But more later about how Jim found me as he sought an English-speaking
intellectual and social guide to Eastern Europe.
In the meantime, growing up in Sighet with a
population of only 30,000 people, we were proud to recognize Ely Wiesel
(born 1928) as our most prominent citizen long before he won the 1986 Nobel
Peace Prize. He helped us get past the terrible history of Sighet Communist
Prison where “enemies of the state” were confined until “death due to natural
cause.”
In my early years I had a hard time understanding how
the green and flowered valley of Sighet (elevation 1,000 feet, on the Tisa
River at the foot of our forested Carpathian Mountains) could be so beautiful,
yet we lived under the terribly cruel eye of the Securitate to protect  the wretched Dictator Nicolae “Ceausescu,”[2] is the
modern spelling of the Dictator’s name; and he ruled from 1965 to his execution
in 1989 as the harshest leader of all the countries behind Russia’s Wall
against Western Europe.
  
Oddly enough, in the Transylvania of the late
1960s, 1970s, and 1980s, supposedly I
was living the “Golden Age of Romanian Socialism,”
but even to myself as a young student; I could see that the promised “full
progress”
was clearly a lie. Most adults agreed but feared to
speak so bluntly.

In the meantime, without rarely granted permission,
we were forbidden to meet and visit with foreigners, especially those who spoke
English and who wanted to hear from us about Sighet and its nearby wooden
hamlets of the
Maramures Province, where I have my first
memories. The region is ethnically diverse, with a stimulating climate ranging
from very hot summers and very cold winters. Geographically, we lived in the
valleys and Mountains of Gutinul through which the rivers of Iza and Tisa flow.
Geographically, the beautiful forested Tisa River is the natural border with
Southern Ukraine.
As
folklore has it in the West, vampires are native to Transylvania. We had
vampires, werewolves, and wolverines, but all the mythological characters were
actually members of the Communist Party, which everyone had to join--except for
me because with my knowledge, I was considered a security risk!
Fortunately, when in 1982 I entered the University
Babes Boljay,
in Cluj-Napoca, to
earn my M.A. in 1990, for my sociology classes, I decided to conduct my field
research project into the rural life of the North of Romania, recording the
folklore (especially myths) invented and passed down by rural folks (including
small merchants, farmers, fisherman, loggers) had had used that lore to help
them survive for centuries.
Further, much of my research conducted
among the outlying farmers, delved deeply into Transylvania Folklore, which
prepared me well to understand Communist Party Lore.
Thus,
for the second time, my fateful choice of a field research project had further
prepared me, unknowingly, for my future with Jim Wilkie.       
Once I
had been admitted to the Babes Boljay University, which was called “the heart
and brain of Transylvania,” I also further expanded and deepened deep studies
in American language and literature. Also, I studied Romanian language and
literature in the Department of Philology. The Bolyai University Is considered
the best University in Transylvania.
Upon
beginning my mentoring for other students, I was happy to find a sense of
freedom. Reading and writing comprehension were my forté during my four years
at Cluj.  I had always dreamt of being a
professor and a writer and seemed to be off to a great start.
But I
soon realized that our professors opened the day by reading the mounds of new
Decrees just signed by Ceausescu.  Thus,
I began laughing, and other students join me in mocking the wooden language of
Central Planning’s attempt to befuddle us with words from a wooden language,
totally bent toward twisting our brains into confused submission. Professors
and Securitate officers were acting as sweaty bureaucrats trying to teach us
how to sharpen our mental images. Not one professor asked us, “What do each of
you really think of all this Ceausescu propaganda of decrees harming the
educational process?”                 
Professors
had their favorite students and made sure they pointed this out in class,
stifling any competition as they show openly their favoritism or nepotism.
When I
reached the age of 22 in1985, I started to be argumentative, criticizing
professors, especially the history professor who only knew only the History of
the Romanian Communist Party.
The
Russians, via the KGB, had been directing Romanian politicians since 1945, and
pressured Romanian students to dig useless trenches as well forced
women-students to shot Russian weapons, and learn to disassemble and assemble
the AK47.
Meanwhile
in my University Cluj the atmosphere was dreadful in classes. Restrictions were
plentiful and absurd. Speech was not free; one couldn’t discuss issues freely
in class, or make any real analysis or debate. One had to regurgitate what the
professors were telling us. Modern economics led by and read whatever was there
in the old books stacked in the communist library. Until I escaped Romania in
1992, I learned that the so-called economics classes we took taught nothing
about money, credit, and such terms as GDP. The Marxian economics involved only
fuzzy
nonsensical slogans such as “We Romanians have to fight-off the ‘running dogs
of capitalism,” without the word “capitalism” ever being defined except in
unrealistic theory laced with epithets.
 Even as an English major, I not permitted to
speak with foreigners in English --answering one question was a crime,
according to the tendentious Security Decrees. Abortion was a crime punishable
for up to 20 years in prison. Doctors performing it ended up in jail, and so
did the pregnant women. Punishments were ridiculous—the Anti-Abortion Law lasted
for 40 years, until 1990.
Furthermore,
if my uncle from Canada visited us, we were all under surveillance, the entire
family. Even today, in 2017 one has to report to the police to declare if any
visitor of family comes from the USA (or Canada, for some bizarre security
reason). Well, after 25 years, not much has changed in poor Romania.
  
THE INFLUENCE OF RECENT ROMANIAN HISTORY
In the meantime, the History of Transylvania
weighed heavily on population of Romania, with constant change in the emerging
political map always have left “citizens” always lost about who was really in
charge.
Thus, Transylvania
was originally part of the Dacia Kingdom between 82 BC until the Roman conquest
in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia was destroyed by the Romans, so that a new as
capital would serve the Roman Province of Dacia, which lasted until 350 ADS, by
which time the Romans felt so hated that it behooved them withdraw back to
Rome.
      During the late 9th
century, western Transylvania was conquered by the Hungarian Army to later
become part of the Kingdom of Hungary and in 1570 to devolve into the
Principality of Transylvania. During most of the 16th and 17th centuries, the
Principality became an Ottoman Empire vassal state, confusingly also governed
by the Habsburg Empire.
After 1711 Transylvania was consolidated solely into the Hapsburg Empire
and Transylvanian princes were replaced with Habsburg imperial governors.
After 1867, Transylvania
ceased to have separate status and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary
as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[3]
After World War I, Transylvania reverted in 1918 to
be part of Romania.  In 1940 Northern
Transylvania again became governed by Hungary and then Germany, but Romanian
queen Maria successfully reclaimed it after the end of World War II.
The year 1940 was important for Romania because if
was seized for its oil by Nazi Germany (1940-1944), “liberated” by the “Soviet
Union” (1944-1947), and finally “re-liberated” to become the Popular republic
of Romania (under USSR remote control), as the Cold War was beginning to freeze
the Iron Curtain into place.
At the end of World War II while the USSR and its
Red Army were the occupying powers in all Romania, in 1947 Romania forcibly and
ironically became a “People’s Republic” (1947–1989), after the rise of the Iron
Curtain.
The first “president,” Gheorghiu-Dej (1947) ruled
as puppet of Moscow, but when he died, his Secretary General of the Communist
Party of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu, was elected as the second “president”
(1965-1989), shifting his savage dictatorship into a harsher Romanian “Gulag”
than known in the USSR.  
For two decades, I neither understood the
dimensions of tragic history of Transylvania, nor did I yet realize that I
would have to escape the Gulag of Romania, even if by the “skin of my teeth.”
For peoples of the world Transylvania seems to be a
faraway place, where most people know the werewolves and vampires have been
“seen” to in the imagination of Transylvanians, whose beliefs was soaked in
mystical folklore. Even today it is hardly possible to have a rational
conversation with most the Transylvanian folk on any subject without recourse
to try to understand where their distorted imagination has befuddled them.
      The
population has consisted of Romanians, Hungarians, Germans, and some
Ukrainians. These languages are still being spoken in Romania’s Maramures
province, but because I always liked and loved the Romanian language, I decided
to become a Professor of Romanian Language and Literature.
MY
BACKDROP TO THE FALL OF CEAUSESCU
I later told Jim how I had been admitted in 1982 to
the Babes-Bolyai University, in Cluj-Napoca at the heart of Transylvania, I
focused especially on Linguistics. Unfortunately, there I found that the
professors, who were under the control of sweaty-stinking Securitate officers,
had to read dozens of new Decrees issued every day as they sought to control every
one of our daily actions—all in the name of protecting the Ceausescu
government—which was selling the country’s food supplies to Russia in order to
pay down Roman’s official debt with exports. Those Securitate officers ate well
and ominously watched us virtually starve. They said, be calm, like your
parents in the face of their starvation. 
Secu
officers were the vampires and the wolverines that
I was talking about in my first paragraph. They are surveillance officers, and
this is what they do: inform on innocent people, place all types of microphones
under people
s tables and beds, and that have fun as perverted
this may sound in almost every home in Sighet, Maramures County. They report on
you, and this earns them a living.
 Thus, I
furiously called out in my classes that our very existence was being
compromised by Ceausescu's abandonment of the population, which was ordered to,
as Lenin famously said, “work, work, and work.”
To protect myself as best I could, I turned to
humor, seeking to ridicule Ceausescu’s “national paradise.”  But when I encouraged my classmates to laugh
at the propaganda embedded in the wooden language of the national bureaucracy,
I soon fell under the heavy scrutiny of university authorities, who were
furious that I trying to expose the fact that all classes had been organized to
befuddle the student body into confused submission. Indeed, each professor had
favorite students to help drown out legitimate questions and stifle any
competing analysis—the university lived under nepotism, favoritism, the threat
of rape (virtual and real) by the Securitate officers, and open bribery by the
professors--choose your garden variety.
              
MY 1986 FLIGHT FROM ROMANIA BACKFIRES
By 1986, at age 23, I had decided to flee
Romania—an illegal act because Ceausescu did not want anyone (especially women
of child-bearing age) to escape his plan to building his “ideal socialist
industries” on farms and ranches as well as in the cities. In June, I made my
way to the border of Yugoslavia and paid a smuggler to evade the Romanian
security forces that were preventing the “nations workers” from escaping. The
smuggler, who took me across the border, turned out to be working for Romanian
Border Police. Thus, soon after crossing into Yugoslavia, he turned his wagon
around and I was again in Romania again when I realized what had happened too
late. I had been “sold” to Ceausescu’s minions for a wagonload of salt and 20
Liters of gasoline. Thousands were returned for this kind of draconian
exchange.
That failed escape from Romania led me to a
10-month prison sentence in Timisoara Prison, wherein the block cells
were maintained so cold (supposedly to eliminate bacteria and
viruses) that it made all of us inmates sick with the cold and the flu.
Bed blankets in the were less warming than one Kleenex tissue.
Moreover, there were no pillows, and the concrete slab where inmates slept was
a “back-breaker.” The lights were on 24 hours a day, blinding all of us, and
there was constant observation. Every hour one was awakened to be counted for,
and sneaking up on people, under the guise of watching out for suicides. But
everyone could be clearly seen by the guards, and there was no need to
sleep-deprive inmates. There was also someone in the higher echelon ripping off
the food budget to siphon money to themselves while serving inmates only baby
carrots and spicy beans.
Almost every family in Romanian civil society had at least one
member who had been imprisoned for trying to open the political system by
denouncing the Ceausescu dictatorship. These inmates were openly called
“Political Prisoners,” and I was one of them.
Political Prisoners
were not permitted to work outside the prison walls in the fields because our
crime had been the political decision to repudiate Ceausescu’s “fantastic
system.”  
    OUT OF
PRISON IN 1987 TO FIND ROMANIA FACING
                                     “CHANGE IN
THE AIR”
Once free in
1987, I could return to my University to finally complete my M.A. in 1990.  
 Further in 1987, at the age of 24, I met the
Family patriarch Nicolae Pipas,[4]
who directed for the Communist government the walled Regional Art Museum in a
quiet part of Sighet. When he realized that I was a Professor of the English
and Romania Languages, and one of the few university’s highly educated persons
in the region, I began to serve as interpreter/guide to visiting foreign
Ambassadors permitted to travel in Romania. They wanted to see the Museum with
its magnificent collection of paintings, sculptures, and rare historical
pottery and coins. Thus, I soon found myself interpreting and translating for
visiting English-Speaking Ambassadors from many countries who wished to know
Transylvania, especially my village Sighet and its Merry Cemetery famous worldwide
for it tombstones in the form of wood sculpture of the butcher, the baker,
candlestick maker, and all professions.
Although my first languages were Romanian and
Hungarian, I could also translate into French and Italian. Indeed, at that time
I was teaching Latin in the Rural School System of my Maramures Province.
 By 1989,
Ceausescu realized that his end was near, and he sought to gain support by
pardoning his political prisoners (such as myself) who had tried to escape the
horrendous conditions in the country. Hence, university students and some labor
unions joined forces and quite quickly after the fall of the Berlin Wall forced
Ceausescu and his draconian wife Elena to flee. They were caught and executed
on Christmas Day, 1989, by the military that at the last moment joined the
Revolution.
‘As my friends and I (along with most of the
population) cheered the fall of the failed, rotten Romanian “dictatorship of
the proletariat,” my dear mother acted differently. She was so confused by the
propaganda of the only “leader” she knew much about that she wept for
Ceausescu, not fully realizing that he was the one who had wrongly had be
arrested and put me in prison. 
With Ceausescu gone, in 1990 I was able to secure a
passport to ready myself to leave Romania by gaining visas for Germany and
France. The question remained, how to get there by land without a visa to
Austria—my region had no air connection to the outside world.
MY FATEFUL 1991 MEETING IN
SIGHET WITH JIM WILKIE
Almost age 27 in 1991, I was in the right place at
the right time when UCLA Professor Jim Wilkie arrived in Sighet in September 17th,
1990, together
with Professor James Platler (his friend and driver). They
came as part of their trip to assess the impact of the 1989 Fall of Iron Curtain--which
had imprisoned all Romanians and made it a crime to try to escape from Romania.
The two Americans had already visited “East” Germany,
Czechia,[5]
and Slovakia (soon to break their union, each becoming independent), and
Poland, where English speakers could provide guidance.
In Romania, the UCLA Team found itself at a loss as few of the people
who they encountered could speak English and none of them could analyze or
articulate how the System of Government and society functioned before and after
1989.
       When we
met, Jim immediately contracted[6]
with me to advise them as well as guide them through Eastern Europe. They were
pleased to hear my outline of Transylvanian and Romanian history (see above),
with which I explained how constant national boundary change meant that
Transylvanians and Romanians were never able to develop either honest civil
government or active civic society. Little did I know that the concepts of
“Civic” and “Civil” Society were of utmost importance to Jim? As I would find
out later, Jim and I had been conducting compatible research for years and
would lead me to       my PHD
Dissertation and two books written with Jim. [7]
All these works distinguish between the concepts of Civil Society (which
represents national and local governmental activity) and Civic Society (which
involves active private citizens (who organize non-governmental initiatives to
develop model projects beyond the ability of official bureaucrats to even
comprehend, including the influence needed to monitor and expose the failures
and successes of governmental activity).   
But before we left September 18, 1991,
to visit Romania and Hungary, I had to find a substitute for my new class
teaching American English and History in Sighet—I left a friend, Johnny
Popescu, to become my permanent substitute. Only then could our newly expanded
Team set off under my guidance.
Thus, we set out on that September 18th
to visit one of the most socially and economically interesting and beautiful
parts of Romania by going up thought the green forested Carpathian Mountains
via the beautiful Prislop Pass, stopping to visit small farming families in
their folkloric clothing of which they were justifiably proud to wear on a
daily basis.  Farther east in Romania, on the scenic roads, we visited the
monasteries of Moldova, the town of Cimpulung Moldovenesc, Suceava, and then
the Monasteries in Sucevita and Agapia. The gorgeous forested mountain road
eventually led to Lacul Rosu and the lake country. Then we took the long scenic
mountain road to Cluj Napoca to visit my prestigious University.
As I briefed Jim about Romania, he was briefing me
about factors in comparing national economies. For example, he told me about
how he had reunited in Prague on September 15th with Richard Beesen,
his former
UCLA
student and friend, to hear about his role in London as Manager of D
eutsche Bank’s New
Accounts in Russia and Eastern Europe. Richard had become famous for inviting
Banking Officials and national Treasury Ministries to deposit their financial
reserves on deposit in his bank in London. But because his clients did not
understand anything about “interest payments” on deposited funds, they did not
ask for nor did they gain any interest payments. Also, because most Western
Banks were not sure that these new “capitalists” could be “fully trusted” for
correct management of their deposits, his D
eutsche
Bank
collected large fees (and paid no interest to keep
the Eastern Europe “bank reserves safe.” This was all very eye opening for me.
Jim and I had realized early on that we had a close
affinity as we analyzed the situation of Romania, and he said, “Call me Jim.”
(In contrast I called Professor James Platler “JP.”) As we traveled to observe
the situation of the people in different parts of the country, Jim and I formed
a deep bond of observing and analyzing; thus, both of us realized this brief
interlude had to continue for the long term in order to achieve our goals.
NEXT STOPS, BUDAPEST, SALZBURG, MUNICH,
 BORDEAUX
(FOR ME), AND LOS ANGELES (FOR JIM)
       As a Romanian, I had the right to enter
Hungary, and we did so bypassing the miles of vehicles waiting to cross the
border for the long drive to Budapest. There Prof. James Platler finally
relaxed after the long drives and often poor hotels and hotels—he said that he
finally found unbroken civilization again.
    Once we
arrived in Budapest, Professor James Platler, who had told Jim privately that
from the outset of our trip that he thought that I was a “Spy” (planted on us
by the Romanian Securitate to monitor our many “foreign” inquiries during our
travel through Romania’s north country), announced that his concern about me
had vanished as we realized the extent of my knowledge and research
abilities.   In his mind, I had to be a
Spy because I had obtained access to special private dining rooms and quarter
in some fine hotels, as well as invitations for wonderful lunches at some
Monasteries, where miraculously I made immediate friends with each Mother
Superior. But by the time we reached Budapest, he realized that at my
University I had learned the Elite skills needed to survive safely and
comfortably in Eastern Europe. 
        My problem was to enter Austria, where
I had no visa. But Jim passed his
UCLA business card through to the Consul General of
Austria in Budapest, and quickly we found ourselves whisked from the back of
the long line to the front and right into a meeting with the Consul General
himself. He was pleased to hear about the research of our
UCLA Team, but said that I did have a visa. Jim then
told them that I only needed a three-day transit visa to reach Germany, the
visa for which he could see in my passport.
With entry to Austria solved, we were on the road
to the Hotel Kobentzl and Graz, which overlook Salzburg, all the way analyzing
the comparative economic and social situations of Austria, Hungary, and
Romania.
We spent most of our time down the mountain from
Kobentzl to the valley, before returning to our sweeping Hotel view of Salzburg
City. Meanwhile I was deepening my questions about capital is leveraged to
undertake big private projects. As we took photos over from on high looking
down on the many bridges of Salzburg and Jim was explaining how the developed
world operated by using finances, credit, and interest to help economies grow.
Finally, we left Salzburg
to enter Germany and Munich, where our quick look into Oktoberfest found us
among nasty drunken louts each of whom seemingly had hand four hands: one to
chug-a-lug beer; one to smoke foul smelling cigarettes; one to quaff
horrible-bleeding-raw sausages; and one to punch someone in the face. From what
we saw, Oktoberfest was a place for nasty males seeking to “get smashed on
beer” and then smash another male to break his nose. Thus, we fled for our
lives as the brutes began to threaten anyone who looked at them.
       Even though the “English-Speaking
USA” had been supposedly always threatening to invade Romania, I continued to
study English language and literature. That I chose to study English even
though the act alone brought suspicion on me because all society was taught to
believe since 1945 that we were fighting off the Great USA.[8]
America was officially seen as a threat to Romania and its allies under
Russia’s COMECON,[9]
all of which I became only fully aware as I grew older and had to buy the
English Course textbooks on the risky, expensive Black Market.
In the meantime, without
rarely granted permission, we were forbidden to meet and visit with foreigners,
especially those who spoke English and who wanted to hear from us about Sighet
and its nearby wooden hamlets of the
Maramures Province, where I
have my first memories. The region is ethnically diverse, with a stimulating
climate ranging from very hot summers and very cold winters. Geographically, we
lived in the valleys and Mountains of Gutinul through which the rivers of Iza
and Tisa flow. Geographically, the beautiful forested Tisa River is the natural
border with Southern Ukraine.
As
folklore has it in the West, vampires are native to Transylvania. We had
vampires, werewolves, and wolverines, but all the mythological characters were
actually members of the Communist Party and infamous security officers, which
everyone had to join--except for me because with my knowledge, I was considered
a security risk! I actually refused to join the bloody red party, and so did
one of my girl colleagues, Michaela Pascu-Arvedson, who lives in Malmo, Sweden
now. Non-alignment meant we were the black sheep of the class.
Fortunately, when in 1982
I entered the University Babes Boljay,
in Cluj-Napoca, to earn my M.A. in 1990,
for my sociology classes, I decided to conduct my field research project into
the rural life of the North of Romania, recording the folklore (especially
myths) invented and passed down by rural folks (including small merchants,
farmers, fisherman, loggers) had had used that lore to help them survive for
centuries.
Further, much
of my research conducted among the outlying farmers, delved deeply into
Transylvania Folklore, which prepared me well to understand Communist Party
Lore, and unjustified secret security surveillance.
Thus,
for the second time, my fateful choice of a field research project had further
prepared me, unknowingly, for my future with Jim Wilkie.       
Once I
had been admitted to the Babes Boljay University, which was called “the heart
and brain of Transylvania,” I also further expanded and deepened deep studies
in American language and literature. Also, I studied Romanian language and
literature in the Department of Philology. The Bolyai University Is considered
the best University in Transylvania.
Upon
beginning my mentoring for other students, I was happy to find a sense of
freedom. Reading and writing comprehension were my forté during my four years
at Cluj.  I had always dreamt of being a
professor and a writer and seemed to be off to a great start.
But I
soon realized that our professors opened the day by reading the mounds of new
Decrees just signed by Ceausescu.  Thus,
I began laughing, and other students join me in mocking the wooden language of
Central Planning’s attempt to befuddle us with words from a wooden language,
totally bent toward twisting our brains into confused submission. Professors
and Securitate officers were acting as sweaty bureaucrats trying to teach us
how to sharpen our mental images. Not one professor asked us, “What do each of
you really think of all this Ceausescu propaganda of decrees harming the
educational process?”                 
Professors
had their favorite students and made sure they pointed this out in class,
stifling any competition as they show openly their favoritism or nepotism.
When I
reached the age of 22 in1985, I started to be argumentative, criticizing
professors, especially the history professor who only knew only the History of
the Romanian Communist Party.
The
Russians, via the KGB, had been directing Romanian politicians since 1945, and
pressured Romanian students to dig useless trenches as well forced
women-students to shot Russian weapons, and learn to disassemble and assemble
the AK47.
Meanwhile
in my University Cluj the atmosphere was dreadful in classes. Restrictions were
plentiful and absurd. Speech was not free; one couldn’t discuss issues freely
in class, or make any real analysis or debate. One had to regurgitate what the
professors were telling us. Modern economics led by and read whatever was there
in the old books stacked in the communist library. Until I escaped Romania in
1992, I learned that the so-called economics classes we took taught nothing
about money, credit, and such terms as GDP. The Marxian economics involved only
fuzzy
nonsensical slogans such as “We Romanians have to fight-off the ‘running dogs
of capitalism,” without the word “capitalism” ever being defined except in
unrealistic theory laced with epithets.
 Even as an English major, I not permitted to
speak with foreigners in English --answering one question was a crime,
according to the tendentious Security Decrees. Abortion was a crime punishable
for up to 20 years in prison. Doctors performing it ended up in jail, and so
did the pregnant women. Punishments were ridiculous—the Anti-Abortion Law
lasted for 40 years, until 1990.
Furthermore,
if my uncle from Canada visited us, we were all under surveillance, the entire
family. Even today, in 2017 one has to report to the police to declare if any
visitor of family comes from the USA (or Canada, for some bizarre security
reason). Well, after 25 years, not much has changed in poor Romania.
  
THE INFLUENCE OF RECENT ROMANIAN HISTORY
In the meantime, the
History of Transylvania weighed heavily on population of Romania, with constant
change in the emerging political map always have left “citizens” always lost
about who was really in charge.
Thus, Transylvania was originally part of the Dacia Kingdom between 82
BC until the Roman conquest in 106 AD. The capital of Dacia was destroyed by
the Romans, so that a new as capital would serve the Roman Province of Dacia,
which lasted until 350 ADS, by which time the Romans felt so hated that it
behooved them withdraw back to Rome.
      During the late 9th
century, western Transylvania was conquered by the Hungarian Army to later
become part of the Kingdom of Hungary and in 1570 to devolve into the Principality
of Transylvania. During most of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Principality
became an Ottoman Empire vassal state, confusingly also governed by the
Habsburg Empire.
After 1711 Transylvania was consolidated solely into the Hapsburg Empire
and Transylvanian princes were replaced with Habsburg imperial governors.
After 1867, Transylvania
ceased to have separate status and was incorporated into the Kingdom of Hungary
as part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.[10]
After World War I, Transylvania reverted in 1918 to
be part of Romania.  In 1940 Northern
Transylvania again became governed by Hungary and then Germany, but Romanian
queen Maria successfully reclaimed it after the end of World War II.
The year 1940 was
important for Romania because if was seized for its oil by Nazi Germany
(1940-1944), “liberated” by the “Soviet Union” (1944-1947), and finally
“re-liberated” to become the Popular republic of Romania (under USSR remote
control), as the Cold War was beginning to freeze the Iron Curtain into place.
At the end of World War II while the USSR and its
Red Army were the occupying powers in all Romania, in 1947 Romania forcibly and
ironically became a “People’s Republic” (1947–1989), after the rise of the Iron
Curtain.
The first “president,”
Gheorghiu-Dej (1947) ruled as puppet of Moscow, but when he died, his Secretary
General of the Communist Party of Romania, Nicolae Ceausescu, was elected as
the second “president” (1965-1989), shifting his savage dictatorship into a
harsher Romanian “Gulag” than known in the USSR.  
For two decades I neither
understood the dimensions of tragic history of Transylvania, nor did I yet
realize that I would have to escape the Gulag of Romania, even if by the “skin
of my teeth.”
For peoples of the world
Transylvania seems to be a faraway place, where most people know the werewolves
and vampires have been “seen” to in the imagination of Transylvanians, whose
beliefs was soaked in mystical folklore. Even today it is hardly possible to
have a rational conversation with most the Transylvanian folk on any subject
without recourse to try to understand where their distorted imagination has
befuddled them.
      The
population has consisted of Romanians, Hungarians, Germans, and some
Ukrainians. These languages are still being spoken in Romania’s Maramures
province, but because I always liked and loved the Romanian language, I decided
to become a Professor of Romanian Language and Literature.
MY
BACKDROP TO THE FALL OF CEAUSESCU
I later told Jim how I had been admitted in 1982 to
the Babes-Bolyai University, in Cluj-Napoca at the heart of Transylvania, I
focused especially on Linguistics. Unfortunately, there I found that the
professors, who were under the control of sweaty-stinking Securitate officers,
had to read dozens of new Decrees issued every day as they sought to control
every one of our daily actions—all in the name of protecting the Ceausescu
government—which was selling the country’s food supplies to Russia in order to
pay down Roman’s official debt with exports. Those Securitate officers ate well
and ominously watched us virtually starve. They said, be calm, like your
parents in the face of their starvation.  Secu

officers were the vampires and the wolverines that I was talking about in my
first paragraph. They are surveillance officers, and this is what they do:
inform on innocent people, place all types of microphones under people
s tables and beds, and that have fun as perverted
this may sound in almost every home in Sighet, Maramures County. They report on
you, and this earns them a living.
 Thus, I
furiously called out in my classes that our very existence was being
compromised by Ceausescu's abandonment of the population, which was ordered to,
as Lenin famously said, “work, work, and work.”
To protect myself as best I could, I turned to
humor, seeking to ridicule Ceausescu’s “national paradise.”  But when I encouraged my classmates to laugh
at the propaganda embedded in the wooden language of the national bureaucracy,
I soon fell under the heavy scrutiny of university authorities, who were
furious that I trying to expose the fact that all classes had been organized to
befuddle the student body into confused submission. Indeed, each professor had
favorite students to help drown out legitimate questions and stifle any competing
analysis—the university lived under nepotism, favoritism, the threat of rape
(virtual and real) by the Securitate officers, and open bribery by the
professors--choose your garden variety.
              
MY 1986 FLIGHT FROM ROMANIA BACKFIRES
By 1986, at age 23, I had decided to flee
Romania—an illegal act because Ceausescu did not want anyone (especially women
of child-bearing age) to escape his plan to building his “ideal socialist
industries” on farms and ranches as well as in the cities. In June I made my
way to the border of Yugoslavia and paid a smuggler to evade the Romanian
security forces that were preventing the “nations workers” from escaping. The
smuggler, who took me across the border, turned out to be working for Romanian
Border Police. Thus, soon after crossing into Yugoslavia, he turned his wagon
around and I was again in Romania again when I realized what had happened too
late. I had been “sold” to Ceausescu’s minions for a wagonload of salt and 20
Liters of gasoline. Thousands were returned for this kind of draconian
exchange.
That failed escape from Romania led me to a
10-month prison sentence in Timisoara Prison, wherein the block cells
were maintained so cold (supposedly to eliminate bacteria and
viruses) that it made all of us inmates sick with the cold and the flu.
Bed blankets in the were less warming than one Kleenex tissue. Moreover,
there were no pillows, and the concrete slab where inmates slept was a
“back-breaker.” The lights were on 24 hours a day, blinding all of us, and
there was constant observation. Every hour one was awakened to be counted for,
and sneaking up on people, under the guise of watching out for suicides. But everyone
could be clearly seen by the guards, and there was no need to sleep-deprive
inmates. There was also someone in the higher echelon ripping off the food
budget to siphon money to themselves while serving inmates only baby carrots
and spicy beans.
Almost every family in Romanian civil society had at least one
member who had been imprisoned for trying to open the political system by
denouncing the Ceausescu dictatorship. These inmates were openly called
“Political Prisoners,” and I was one of them.
Political Prisoners
were not permitted to work outside the prison walls in the fields because our
crime had been the political decision to repudiate Ceausescu’s multilateral
“fantastic system.”  Or kibbutz, as
foreigners were calling his disastrous movement of people from the rural areas
into the cities, that is the forced urbanization.
               OUT
OF PRISON IN 1987 TO FIND ROMANIA FACING
                                     “CHANGE IN
THE AIR”
Once free in
1987, I could return to my University to finally complete my M.A. in 1990.  
 Further in 1987, at the age of 24,
I met Valerian, Transylvanian violinist famous for playing multicultural
melodies, from Ruthenian, to Hungarian Csardas, and Romanian horas. Good match
for me, as I was a great dancer, when I was not teaching. I hardly met my
future husband, who introduced me to the family patriarch Nicolae Pipas,[11] who
directed for the Communist government the walled Regional Art Museum in a quiet
part of Sighet. When he realized that I was a Professor of the English and
Romania Languages, and one of the few university’s highly educated persons in
the region, I began to serve as interpreter/guide to visiting foreign
Ambassadors permitted to travel in Romania.

I was thoroughly disgusted with the Securitate officers recording every phone
call I made, the constant harassment by these eminence-gris fellows to report
on our parents, family, or professors.
Even today, in 2017 one
has to report to the police to declare if any visitor of family comes from the
USA (or Canada, for some bizarre security reason). Well, after 27 years, since
I have left, not much has changed in Romania. Securitate still do their dirty
tricks on people, and they kept their well-paid jobs, and the circus still goes
on in the name of the people, sic! 
Today’s ruling party is the Social Democratic party, that is a direct
descendant of the communist cadre.
 UCLA team, and visitors always wanted
to see the Museum where I lived in Tisa, with its magnificent collection of
paintings, sculptures, and rare historical pottery and coins. Thus, I soon
found myself interpreting and translating for visiting English-Speaking
Ambassadors from many countries who wished to know Transylvania, especially my
village Sighet and its Merry Cemetery famous worldwide for it tombstones in the
form of wood sculpture of the butcher, the baker, candlestick maker, and all
professions.
Although my first
languages were Romanian and Hungarian, I could also translate into French and
Italian. Indeed, at that time I was teaching English, Romanian, and Latin in
the sophisticated urban School System of my Maramures Province.
 By 1989,
Ceausescu realized that his end was near, and he sought to gain support by
pardoning his political prisoners (such as myself) who had tried to escape the
horrendous conditions in the country. Hence, university students and some labor
unions joined forces and quite quickly after the fall of the Berlin Wall forced
Ceausescu and his draconian wife Elena to flee. They were caught and executed by
a military squad on Christmas Day, 1989, by the military that at the last
moment joined the “Revolution.” I put revolution in quotes, because a
socialistic minded Ion Iliescu of FSN self-proclaimed

salvation ad-hoc party has stolen the authentic
anti-socialist movement of the young students, and activists. The whole world
could now see the execution, the day preceding Christmas in 1989, and we were
exhilarated at the thought that now we could finally talk about the horrendous
suffering inflicted upon us by the regime. Over 1000 students were shot in
Timisoara the first days of revolution. The University Square in Bucharest was
filled with dead activists, soviet terrorists, and the buildings were ridden
with bullets from special ops who were probably supporting the dictator.
‘As my friends and I (along with most of the
population) cheered the fall of the failed, rotten Romanian “dictatorship of
the proletariat,” my dear mother acted differently. She was so confused by the
propaganda of the only “leader” she knew much about that she wept for
Ceausescu, not fully realizing that he was the one who had wrongly arrested and
put me and other youth in prison. My fascinating, beloved mother asked me to
write a book about all this suffering and atrocities committed by the dictator
and his army of followers. So here is the book:
http://www.decentralizedglobalization.com

Photo: My Book cover here for Decentralized
Globalization illustrates my concern with climate change, and sustainability
for the planet.

With Ceausescu finally gone, after 40 years of
dictatorship, on December 1990 I was able to secure finally a passport in order
to ready myself to leave Romania by gaining visas for Germany and France. I had
a lovely family in Bordeaux, who invited me over to Bordeaux, the Godrie family,
so I pursued this wonderful opportunity, and decided to visit them in
Saint-Denis-De-Pile. I spoke impeccable French. I corresponded for years with
Muguette Godrie, my beloved friend who sponsored my stay in France.
Meanwhile, the question remained, how to get there
by land without a visa to Austria— as my isolated region of Transylvania had no
air connection to the outside world til late in 1990.
I succeeded to finally extract myself from that
virtual prison, and we had to do it by car. Pumped up and having all the visas
in my passport, I took off with Jim on September 16, 1990 in an Opel, which
remains my favorite car to this day.



MY
FATEFUL 1991 MEETING IN SIGHET WITH JIM WILKIE
Almost age 27 in 1991, I
was in the right place at the right time when UCLA Professor Jim Wilkie arrived
in Sighet September 17th, with Professor James Platler (his friend
and driver). They came as part of their trip to assess the impact of the 1989
Fall of The Berlin Wall--which had imprisoned all Romanians and made it a crime
to try to escape from Romania. The two Americans had already visited “East”
Germany,
Poland, Czechia,[12] and
Slovakia (soon to break their union, each becoming independent), and Poland,
where English speakers could provide guidance.
Professor Wilkie
explained to me later how hard it was to find an American-speaking guide in
these countries. In Romania the
UCLA Team found itself at a
loss as few of the people who they encountered could speak English and none of
them could analyze or articulate how the Romanian system of Government and
society functioned before and after 1989. My country was in shambles. Old
factories were rusting and being dismantled for steel and iron. Horrible
socialist monuments were dominating the central plazas of every city or town.
       When we met, Jim immediately contracted[13] with
me to advise him as well as guide the team through Eastern Europe. We have
started by visiting the Monasteries in Moldova. The American History Professors
were pleased to hear my outline of Transylvanian and Romanian history (see
above), with which I explained how constant national boundary change meant that
Transylvanians and Romanians were never able to develop either honest civil
government or active civic society. I can state with certainty now that the
concepts of “Civic attitude” and “Civil” Society were of utmost importance to
me, as I would find out later, as Jim and I had been conducting compatible
research for years, on cycles of statism, and anti-statism. This body of
research would lead me to my PhD Dissertation and two books. [14]
All my academic work
distinguishes between the concepts of Civil Society (which represents national
and local governmental activity) and Civic Society (which involves active
private citizens who organize non-governmental initiatives to develop model
projects beyond the ability of official bureaucrats to even comprehend,
including the influence needed to monitor and expose the failures and successes
of governmental activity).   
But before we left September 18, 1991,
to visit Romania and Hungary, I had to find a substitute for my new English class
teaching American English and History in Sighet at School number 2, — so I left
a friend, Johnny Popescu, to become my permanent substitute. Always a
responsible person, as my mom would say. Johnny was an openly gay teacher, so
he was happy to be handed over the job just like that on a platter! Gay
teachers seldom found jobs in Teaching English as a Second language, especially
after the Romanian revolution failed in 1990.
As I have found about from other colleagues, all my
professors were informers to the ominous Securitate anyways.
Only then could our newly expanded Team set off
under my guidance.
Three days after visiting Sighet and showing around
the old factories, the museums, and Miss Mihaly De Apsa’s Home, I decided to
leave Sighet forever.

Together with Prof. Wilkie I packed all my clothes and said Good Bye to my mom,
Magdalena, on the 1st floor of the state-owned block of flats, that
I hate with a passion, and left for good. In Tisa, at the Museum, I had told my
in-laws, Maria the Captain, and Nicolae, the Patriarch, that I had to go and
create my own destiny in a more propitious place.
Thus, we set out on that September 18th
to visit one of the most socially and economically interesting and beautiful
parts of Romania by going up thought the green forested Carpathian Mountains
via the beautiful Prislop Pass, stopping to visit small farming families in
their folkloric clothing of which they were justifiably proud to wear on a
daily basis.  Farther east in Romania, on the scenic roads, we visited the
monasteries of Moldova, the town of Cimpulung Moldovenesc, Suceava, and then
the Monasteries in Sucevita and Agapia. The color blue, in organic natural dye,
was named by UNESCO experts Blue of Voronet, and it covers the oldest monastery
in Campulung Moldovenesc.
The gorgeous forested mountain road eventually led
to Lacul Rosu and the lake country, on top of the deep green plateau. Then we
took the long scenic mountain road to Cluj Napoca to visit my prestigious
University.
As I briefed Jim about Romania, he was briefing me
about factors in comparing national economies. For example, he told me about
how he had reunited in Prague on September 15th with Richard Beesen,
his former
UCLA
student and friend, to hear about his role in London as Manager of D
eutsche Bank’s New Accounts in Russia and Eastern Europe. Richard had become
famous for inviting Banking Officials and national Treasury Ministries to
deposit their financial reserves on deposit in his bank in London. But because
his clients did not understand anything about “interest payments” on deposited
funds, they did not ask for nor did they gain any interest payments. Also,
because most Western Banks were not sure that these new “capitalists” could be
“fully trusted” for correct management of their deposits, his D
eutsche Bank collected large fees (and paid no interest to keep
the Eastern Europe “bank reserves safe.” This was all very eye opening for me.
Jim and I had realized early on that we had a close
affinity as we analyzed the situation of Romania, and he said, “Call me Jim.”
(In contrast I called Professor James Platler “JP.”) As we traveled to observe
the situation of the people in different parts of the country, Jim and I formed
a deep bond of observing and analyzing; thus, both of us realized this brief
interlude had to continue for the long term in order to achieve our noble goals.


NEXT
STOPS, BUDAPEST, SALZBURG, MUNICH,
 BORDEAUX (FOR ME), AND LOS ANGELES (FOR JIM)
       As a Romanian, I had the right to enter
Hungary, and we did so bypassing the miles of vehicles waiting to cross the
border for the long drive to Budapest. Romanian Hungarians, as well as Germans,
and Serbs wanted to leave Romania in huge numbers, with the rise of nationalism
in Romania. This was true for all ethnicities following the dictator’s death.
After a two days drive, we arrived in Vienna,
Austria. The autobahn and the roads, highways were smoother now once we entered
Western Europe. There, in Vienna Prof. James Platler could finally relax after
the long drives and often poor hotels in Romania —he said that we finally found
unbroken civilization again.
    Once we
arrived in Budapest, Professor James Platler, who had told Jim privately that from
the outset of our trip he thought that I was a “Spy” (planted on them (American
visitors) by the Romanian Securitate to monitor our many “foreign” inquiries
during our travel through Romania’s north country), announced that his concern
about me had vanished as we realized the extent of my knowledge and research
abilities.   In his mind, I had to be a
Spy because I had obtained access to special private dining rooms and quarter
in some fine hotels, as well as invitations for wonderful lunches at some
Monasteries, where miraculously I made immediate friends with each Mother
Superior. But by the time we reached Budapest, he realized that at my
University I had learned the Elite skills needed to survive safely and
comfortably in Eastern Europe. 
        My problem was to enter Austria, where
I had no visa. So, as always, Jim passed his
UCLA business card through to the Consul General of
Austria in Budapest, and quickly they stamped my passport right in front of me.
We were so
happy and surprised by the efficiency of the Consul, that we found ourselves
whisked from the back of the long line to the front and right into a meeting
with the Consul General himself. He was pleased to hear about the research of
our
UCLA
Team, but said that I did have a visa. Jim then told them that I only needed a
three-day transit visa to reach Germany, the visa for which he could see in my
passport.
With entry to Austria solved, we were on the road
to the Hotel Kobentzl and Graz, which overlook Salzburg, all the way analyzing
the comparative economic and social situations of Austria, Hungary, and
Romania.
We spent most of our time down the mountain from
Kobentzl to the valley, before returning to our sweeping Hotel view of Salzburg
City. We scouted the region and have deposed flowers to Wagner’s Tomb, in a sober
and pompous cemetery nearby.
Meanwhile I was deepening my questions about
capital is leveraged to undertake big private projects. As we took photos over
from on high looking down on the many bridges of Salzburg and Jim was
explaining how the developed world operated by using finances, credit, and
interest to help economies grow.
Finally, we left Salzburg to enter Germany and
Munich, where our quick look into Oktoberfest found us among nasty drunken
louts each of whom seemingly had hand four hands: one to chug-a-lug beer; one
to smoke foul smelling cigarettes; one to quaff horrible-bleeding-raw sausages;
and one to punch someone in the face. From what we saw, Oktoberfest was a place
for nasty males seeking to “get smashed on beer” and then smash another male to
break his nose. Thus, we fled for our lives as the brutes began to threaten
anyone who looked at them.  
Then on September 30th, I took the plane
from Munich to Paris to take a bus to Bordeaux to meet the French family, the
daughter of which, in her visit in 1990 to the Museum in Sighet, had invited me
to obtain a French visa and move to stay with her on the lovely family farm outside
Bordeaux.
Jim (and JP) also left the same day for Jim to
arrive in time to go from the airplane to open and begin teaching his Fall
Quarter class at
UCLA.
But he promised to call daily and return to join me again in ten weeks.
In the meantime, I made a trip to Paris to request
political asylum in France, but a grey-faced judge rejected my request, saying
that the petitioner must file with the help of a lawyer. 
To complicate matters in Bordeaux, the French
Security Agent there was investigating me, a lone woman, as a possible spy sent
by Romania to “monitor activities at the Port of Bordeaux. When he told that,
if I pleased him in unmentionable ways, he would not deport me to Romania but
arrange my legal status in France so that I could live him.  I immediately told Jim on his next telephone
call.
      To resolve the above problem, Jim called
his Paris friend Gérard Chaliand, a former visiting professor at
UCLA, whose real job involved traveling the world for
French Security to report on his professorial travels that took him to all
continents. Gérard immediately called French Security to report on the illegal
approach to me by their Agent in Bordeaux. That same day the Agent came to
apologize profusely to me in the best manner that he could muster in his
pitiful condition. He begged me not to have him fired for his proposition to
me. I could see him looking at me in truly puzzled way that implicitly said:
“Who are you? How did I make such a grave mistake in deciding that you, a lone
Romanian woman, could and had the power to reach my bosses in Paris?” I took
pity on him and told him that if he minded manners and watched from afar to be
sure that I was always safe, he would not be fired.
          JIM
RETURNS TO EUROPE DECEMBER, 1991:
HIS PLAN FOR ADVISING EASTERN EUROPEAN CIVIC
SOCIETY ABOUT HOW TO GAIN GRANTS FROM U.S. FOUNDATIONS (NPPOs),[15]  WHICH HOLD THE WORLD’S LARGEST POOL OF NGO
DEVELOPMENT FUNDS
Even though it was December 11, 1991,
when Jim returned, France was in the midst what some in America call an “Indian
Fall,” warm with colorful fall leaves still on the trees.  It was a beautifully bright “fall day” when
we left Bordeaux the next day to spend some days visiting the Loire River with
its many castles and incredible views.
Even during our photography of the Loire region,
Jim began to outline his New Plan (now our plan) to wit:
PROFMEX Plan to Help Eastern European “Foundations”   
                
Become legally eligible to gain grants from                                       U.S. Tax Exempt Foundations
following Jim’s
                 “U.S.-Mexico Model for
Philanthropy.”
Indeed, Jim told me that recently when he had been
in Mexico City, he received an invitation to meet with Manuel Alonso Muñoz,
Executive Director of Mexico’s National Lottery,[16]
who, when he heard about Jim’s U.S.-Mexico Model, invited him to meet at the
Lottery’s historically famous ornate building. After an extended briefing by
Jim, Manuel told him that he had already called his own good friend Ronald G.
Hellman, Professor of Sociology in the Graduate School at the City University
of New York, to ask him for an evaluation of Jim and his Mexico-U.S. Model for
Philanthropy. Ironically, it was only then when he realized that Ron was (and
is today) Jim’s PROFMEX Vice-President for Strategic Planning. With that news
and Jim’s stellar briefing, Lic. Alonso asked if the Lottery could make a
series of generous grants to PROFMEX in order to help fund the expansion of
Jim’s Model to Eastern Europe,[17]
putting Mexico into an innovative new light.
I chose to work as a Director for Research and
Development for beloved PROFMEX, my organization I have worked for the past 27
years now, since I have left Romania. We were very successful in harmonizing
the U.S. And Mexican NPPO (not-for-private-profit) Law.
Back in Mexico, Mr. Manuel Alonso of Mexico’s
Lottery was appreciative of the fact that Jim, while serving as Consultant to
the U.S. Council on Foundations, had become involved since 1990 with his Model
for helping Mexican Foundations (including, for example, charities, human
rights organizations, hospitals, universities, biospheres, etc.) to help them
re-write their constitution and by-laws to be compatible with the U.S. tax
requirement that they mirror U.S. Not-for-Private Profit Organizations (NPPOs).
The question of “mirroring” involved Jim’s
explanation that:
As NPPOs, U.S. Foundations are legally responsible
for controlling expenditure of funds granted to organizations that do not
mirror the U.S. foundations do not want to be involved in the day-to-day
activities of its grantees. Indeed, “they want to transfer “expenditure responsibility”
(including misuse or illegal use of grant funds) to the recipient foundation to
which they grant funds but can only do so if the grant recipient organization
is deemed to have an “equivalent” legal structure to that of the U.S. donor
foundation. First condition.
Here
is the background, according to Jim: [18]
“In order to facilitate the U.S. philanthropic activity needed during the 1970s
and 1980s to help speed world development, the U.S. Secretary of Treasury and
the IRS formulated provisions that resulted in changing and/or interpreting the
Internal Revenue Code (IRC) to freely permit U.S. foundations to grant funds
abroad, if they meet the following special proviso:
U.S.
NPPOs can themselves make a legal “determination” that the foreign organization
receiving the U.S. grant be “determined” to be “equivalent” to an NPPO
described in Section 501(c)(3)[19]
of the U.S. Internal Revenue Code.” 
         Further,
Jim pointed out that, “while this proviso has worked well for big U.S.
grant-making foundations that place costly offices and staff around the world
(such as Rockefeller and Ford Foundations), it has worked less well for
foundations that have had to send their lawyers to meet with their legal
counterparts in prospective ‘equivalent organizations, the legal cost of making
such a determination often reaching $25,000 [or, by 2016, much, much more] for
each new organization to receive funds from the U.S. NPPO. If that
determination is favorable, the U.S. NPPO can transfer funds to the equivalent
organization, just as it can to any other approved U.S. NPPO, and along with
the transfer of funds to the recipient organization goes the transfer of
responsibility over how the funds are spent.”

Transfer of ‘Expenditure
Responsibility’ from the
U.S. Donor NPPO to the
Foreign Recipient NPPO

The ability of
U.S. NPPOs to avoid costly expenditure responsibility, as Jim told, is one of
the factors that have helped make American grant-making foundations so
important in the world. Thus, U.S. NPPOs have been enabled to avoid becoming
ensnarled in accounting processes and audits, which are better done by the
foreign organization that receives and administers the U.S. NPPO grant of
funds.
In
this manner, the U.S. NPPO is free to focus its energy on evaluating the
substance of its grant programs. The ability of grant-making foundations to
transfer Expenditure Responsibility to other NPPOs is the main reason that they
generally prefer (and require) that their funds be granted only to approved
organizations rather than to individuals or to non-approved organizations.
The
above views, Jim said, does not mean that U.S. NPPOs are unable to grant funds
to an organization that is not equivalent to a U.S. NPPO (or make grants to
individual scholars, artists, or writers either at home or abroad), but to do
so adds a complication to the grant-making process. Rather than passing on the
Expenditure Responsibility (as the U.S. NPPO does when it makes grants to
another NPPO or U.S. equivalent), the Expenditure Responsibility remains with
the donor NPPO when it makes a grant to an organization that is not an NPPO (or
its U.S. equivalent) or to an individual.
         In the unlikely case where the donor NPPO retains Expenditure
Responsibility, then, Dr James W. Wilkie told me in my interview with him on
September 17, 1991, the donor foundation has to concern itself with costly
financial oversight involved, which may be problematic whether in or outside
the United States.
ON TO PARIS AND THE WORLD TO MEET WITH      NPPO LEADERS ABOUT NEW FOUNDATIONS
       
Jim and I arrived in Paris on December 15, 1991, to meet with Jim’s
contacts at the American Embassy, who heard about our research and suggested
that Jim meet also with their counterparts at the U.S. Embassy in Mexico City.
They agreed to help begin to our new Plan to expand to Eastern Europe and
Russia Jim’s successful Model for Tax-Free Flow of Nonprofit Funds, the example
being what he negotiated (with the U.S. Council on Foundations and the U.S. and
Mexican Treasury Departments), as analyzed above.
      It is important for me to say here that
George Soros and his decentralized donations to his 41 semi-autonomous
“national foundations”[20]
(exemplified in Romania, Hungary, and Russia) have been built following the IRS
proviso and regulations discussed above. Also, Soros’ “National Foundations”
require that national Government charter the independent role as NGOs.
      In contrast, the flowering of thousands of
small independent “Foundations” in Eastern Europe since 1989 has grown from
groups looking for funds from the many U.S. Foundations that do not have the
Soros/New York link with its Foundations in many nations, all of which operate
in Soros’ closed loop. Few of these new Foundations have the Soros knowledge
and financial resources to set up the By-Laws and Legal Status needed for the
thousands of Foundations desiring to tap into funding by U.S. Foundations.[21]  However, since 2013, Soros’ has organized an
office to work with shared Global Funds (for food, migration, etc.) outside the
non-Soros frameworks to help poor areas and countries to stave off crises.
Before we left Paris on December 19, 1991, we met with France’s Secret
Service officer, Prof. Gérard Chaliand to personally thank him for having made
the Bordeaux Security agent reexamine his whole approach to his life. This
intervention on James’s side made the security officer apologize to me for
having bothered my peaceful academic life.
France has not been friendly to the new flux of immigrants from Romania
and other troubled dictator’s run countries. Actually, my French hosts, the
Godries’ (Muguette), and NGO leaders were not happy migrants were coming into
France and were against these people to get Naturalization, or be granted a
temporary stay, even if people were political refugees. They started banning
the veil on Muslim women right under my nose, at the University of Michelle de
Montaigne where I was taking Elitelore and Folklore courses, in Bordeaux,
Province Aquitaine. French people are extremely nationalistic at this point in
time. My French is super good, and I am proud of it. But it was not enough, and
my experience with the nuns of the Doctrine Chrétien was of absolute importance
for the big leap of faith and move to the United States. University of
California in Los Angeles has always been my big dream for a Doctoral Degree in
History. The nuns owned the Hostel in Bordeaux and were very affectionate and
hospitable with me. We were praying together daily and supported me mentally in
my first year of exile in France.
Further, with Gérard, the secret service officer, we worked out a plan
to arrange for me be hired by PROFMEX, and consequentially to become a U.S.
resident and obtain U.S. citizenship.
Indeed, in nine years after my arrival in Los Angeles, in October 1992,
my dream came true.
Professor Gerard Chaliand, (who dwelled in Geopolitics,) recommended
that my case be handled in Los Angeles instead of France, namely by one of
America’s most knowledgeable and effective Migration Attorneys—Cynthia Juárez
Lange, today
Managing Partner, Northern California, for the
Fragomen Del Rey, Bernsen & Loewy LLP Legal Office located in San
Francisco. Cynthia my Lawyer now, was herself an academic and personable
genius.
Meanwhile in my travels with Jim in December 1991
and from March to June 1992 we met NPPO leaders in the European Union to better
understand how foundations work under unique laws in each county rather than in
any rational manner for the whole EU, we went to Marseilles, Nice,
Villfranche-sur-Mer, Cap-Ferrat, Monaco, La Rochelle, Andorra, Sevilla, Madrid,
Trujillo, El Escorial, Avila (a magnificent fortress city), and Segovia.
On September 3. 1992, we arrived at the U.S.
Consulate in Paris, where the U.S Consulate in Mexico had arranged with Jim for
my U.S. eligibility for residence to be issued. Also, the Mexican Consulate
General in Paris issued me my residence papers to enter and leave Mexico freely,
as arranged by Jim with the Mexican Consular Head Office in Mexico City.
Before we left Europe for the USA in October 1991,
we returned to Sighet on September 7, 1992, for meetings with Romanian Civic
Activists, like Ana Blandiana, of the Sighet Political Jail, as well as
Gheorghe Todinca, now Director of the Museum in Sighet. Thus, I it was now the
first time I dared return to visit only Sighet after having “escaped” with Jim
to France in December 1991. I started working on my Master’s Degree in History,
and wanted to help my colleagues back in the old country.
From March to June 1993, we met with NPPO leaders
in Budapest, Sighet, and Varna (Bulgaria), Bucharest, and St. Petersburg.
In Moscow (June 21-14, 1993), Jim appointed
Professor Boris Koval
 (Director
of the Latin American Institute of the Russian
Academy of Sciences)
, to be
PROFMEX Representative in Russia.  Koval
had invited us to Moscow and introduced us to his own Security Chief to be our
translator and guide. This Security Chief was a fascinating person who had been
former head of the KGB Office in Iraq, 1979-1989. He was now our chauffeur for
almost a week, and took us to the Latin American Study center in Moscow.
Jim, who always wore his Mexican guayabera shirt
with or without a suit, was seen to be “authentically Mexican” in our meetings
and discussions about NPPOs. In Russia we traveled to different parts of the
city to see and talk to NGOs Leaders, and experiencing daily life in Russia in
2010. The huge city had a nice festive vibe to it, with the winter cold setting
in, and I have not seen any cues for food while visiting Moscow or Saint
Petersburg. Too bad that Putin has reset the Cold War in 2012, and dismantled
all the good not-for-profits were doing in opening up the malefic soviet system.
Some of our interviews focused on the successes of
Soros Open Society Foundation--Russia (1987-2002). Other meetings with civic
society followed as we learn the details about the problems of the Soros
Foundations--Russia since 2003, when, under reactionary Government pressure, he
was phasing out of operation active programs. According to the Soros'
Foundation—Russia:
[22]
     “When on November 30, 2015, Russia’s
Prosecutor General’s Office classified the Soros Open Society Foundation as an
“undesirable” organization, it closed the possibility of Russian individuals
and institutions from having anything to do with any Soros initiative or
programs… [Because it constituted]
a threat to the
foundations of
Russia’s Constitutional order and national
security….
    
“Prosecutors [then] launched a probe into Soros Foundation
 activities….[23]
[and in July 2015], after Russian senators approved
the so-called “patriotic stop-list” of 12 groups that
required
immediate attention over their supposed anti-Russian
activities, [the
following U.S. organizations] realized that they would
soon be
banned in Russia: [the U.S.] National Endowment for
Democracy; the
International Republican Institute; the National
Democratic
Institute; the MacArthur Foundation, and Freedom
House.
      The
American hedge funds mogul George Soros issued from London   the following Press Release on
November 30, 2015: [24]
“Contrary to the
Russian prosecutor’s allegations, the Open Society Foundations have, for more
than a quarter-century, helped to strengthen the rule of law in Russia and
protect the rights of all. In the past, Russian officials and citizens have
welcomed our efforts, and we regret the changes that have led the government to
reject our support to Russian civil society and ignore the aspirations of the
Russian people.
“Since 1987, Open Society
has provided support to countless individuals and civil society organizations,
including in the fields of science, education, and public health. Open
Society has helped finance a network of internet centers in 33 universities
around the country, helped Russian scholars to travel and study abroad,
developed curricula for early childhood education, and created a network of
contemporary art centers that are still in operation.
“This record speaks for
itself. We are honored to have worked alongside pioneering citizens, educators,
and civil society organizations that embody Russian creativity, commitment, and
hope.
“We are confident that
this move is a temporary aberration; the aspirations of the Russian people for
a better future cannot be suppressed and will ultimately succeed,” said George
Soros, founder and chairman of the Open Society Foundations. Despite all
efforts and money poured into NGOS, huge amounts of money donated, Soros’ counseling
efforts and his organizations had been all banned from Russia in 2013.
Once with the reset of
the Cold War, in 2012, when Putin was reelected as Russia’s President, Putin’s
first movement was to ban all Soros organizations which were impeding his
expansion onto Crimea.
The Hungarian PM has also
banned G. Soros’s University and Organizations in Budapest, by calling him a
traitor to the country, and all his work was labeled a “diversion”.

    


Most
Romanian extrem right elites hate George Soros for his guts, and so do
Hungarians, the xenophobic segment think he is a “destabilizing” agent, also
because Soros is of Jewish extraction. Hungarians had been always anti-Semitic,
and anti-Gipsy. Not a novelty to expose the right wing, and the extreme left,
there is a lot of literature on this topic.
This
is why we have thousands of Hungarians living in the U.S. and creating
fascinating movies at Hollywood.

Most
of my Doctoral research was done by traveling back and forth from Europe, to
Mexico, and the United States for 2 decades.

Back
in Mexico City for the 1994 PROFMEX Event featuring Eastern Europeans
interested in the U.S.-Mexico Model for NPPOs, we convened, July 28-29, for our
meeting on “Development of Mexico as
seen from the World,” This event was
Co-sponsored by UCLA and Mexico’s Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología.
     This Conference was held at
Mexico City’s María Isabel Sheraton, with 70 participants from Mexico, Eastern
Europe, Central Europe, and the United States.
     The
following invitees from Eastern Europe came from Hungary   
Zoltan
Karpati, Professor of Sociology Hungary, and from      Romania Mihai Coman, University Dean
 Roman Romulus, Consul General in
Mexico
                   Alexandru Lazín, PROFMEX--
England and Romania
                   Lia Stan, Investor from
Bristol, England.
       Highlights of the event came frequently
as we turned our gaze from Salón A with his all-window view from the top floor
to discuss the anti-government protest marches up and down Reforma Avenue past
the Angel Monument below.
       Further, our group enjoyed the
invitation of Mexico’s Attorney General, Jorge Madrazo Cuéllar to visit him at
his headquarters where we personally discussed and raised questions about the
street blockages of political protest in front of our María Isabel Sheraton
Hotel.  
       In December 1997, we continued to invite
world scholars especially interested in economic matters, as well as in the
U.S.-Mexico NPPO Model to participate with us at the:
    The IXth PROFMEX-ANUIES
Conference
         Hosted by Governor Víctor Manuel
Tinoco Rubí
                        Morelia, Michoacán,
México
 México y el
Mundo
                                     Mexico and the World
 In December
8-13, 1997
    With hundreds of participants and Attendees
from all continents,
Special Guests were invited
from: South Korea: Denis Cervantes
Russia:                 Boris Koval,
who recalled with excitement the visit of Jim and I to Moscow in June 1993, and
2013.
China:                  Sengen
Zhang
               
            Hongzhu Huang
Korea:                  Kap-Young
Jeong
Japan:                   Soichi
Shinohara
                                        Osamu Nishimura
                             Yasuoki
Takagi
Indonesia:    Lepi
T. Tarmidi
Argentina:
  Eugenio O. Valenciano
Bolivia:       Antonio
J. Cisneros And Jose Luis Batiz

                                                
Jim and I have been
involved with many academic activities, but those are beyond the scope of my
analysis here of our role in extending PROFMEX (acronym for Professor for
Mexico) around the globe, especially to Europe and Latin America.
    My courses at UCLA taken under Jim and
Professors Carlos Alberto Torres, Richard Weiss, and Ivan T. Berend led me to
the
          M.A. in Latin American Studies (1996)
                    Ph.D. in History (2001)
UCLA
Here is title of my first
book as sole author: http://www.Decentralized Globalization.com 2017 March 10.
The second book, and the
cover:
                            
      My third book, co-authored with James W.
Wilkie, contains images that reflect my travels with Jim:
La globalización se amplia (2011).                                         ,
These books show how U.S.
Tax Exempt Organization (TEO) law has evolved to become the most important in
the world owing to its flexibility. Where the laws of most countries require
prior legal authorization to launch in a new direction, the United States TEO
law recognizes no such limit.
     Thus, U.S. TEO law, unlike most other
countries, is never trying to make legal what is already underway and working
in the world. For the USA and now Mexico, both Treasury Ministries together
have signed the first collaborative agreement that stands as the blueprint for
global NPPOs.
     With Professor James Wilkie, I know that
much researching and writing awaits us in our projects around the world…that is
in bringing civil society together and organizing to counteract the abuses of
dictators and bureaucracies.
    Jim and I have been involved with many
academic activities, but those are beyond the scope of my analysis here of our
role in extending PROFMEX around the globe, especially to Europe and Russia.
My courses at UCLA taken
under Jim and Professors Carlos Alberto Torres, Richard Weiss, and Ivan T.
Berend led me to the M.A. in Latin American Studies (1996) and later, I earned
my Ph.D. in History (2001) at UCLA.
Once my soul settled down
in Los Angeles, I started writing, and here is the title of my first book, as
sole author: www.Decentralized Globalization.com, Published by Authorhouse, in
2017 March 10.
My
book in Spanish,
La globalización se descentraliza:Libre mercado, fundaciones, sociedad
cívica y gobierno civil en las regiones del mundo (2007)
by
Olga Magdalena Lazín. Prologue by Professor James W. Wilkie
was published by University of Guadalajara, and UCLA.                           
My second book, co-authored
with James W. Wilkie, contains images that reflect my travels with Jim:
La globalización se amplia (2011),
Olga
Magdalena Lazín and James W. Wilkie. With a preface by Mexican author Rafael
Rodríguez Castañeda, in 2011
And
the third book:
Dr Olga's American
Dream Come True: Biography of A Transylvanian Expat
(ISBN: 9781973562214) is on Amazon, Kindle Direct
Publishing, 2017. Read on any gadget, EBOOK and paperback.
Fourth book is Civil
Society in The United States, Mexico and Romania
. In Paperback and Ebook,
on Kindle Direct Publishing, Amazon. Readable on any device: tablet, IPHONE or
Kindle.
Fifth Book: Is Soros a
Philanthropist Or A Robber Barron?
Is available on Amazon, Kindle Direct Publishing,
2016. Readable on all devices.
     These books show how U.S. Tax Exempt
Organization (TEO) law has evolved to become the most important in the world
owing to its flexibility. Where the laws of most countries require prior legal
authorization to launch in a new direction, the United States TEO law
recognizes no such limit.
     Thus, U.S. TEO law, unlike most other
countries, is never trying to make legal what is already underway and working
in the world. For the USA and now Mexico, both Treasury Ministries together
have signed the first collaborative agreement that stands as the blueprint for
global NPPOs.
     With Professor James Wilkie, I know that
much researching and writing awaits us in our projects around the world. Years
of travel and research in Costa Rica, Guatemala and Mexico came finally to
fruition in my recent book, Civic And Civil Society in United States, Mexico
and Romania, published in 2016.

        
Olga and Jim, Guadalajara,
Mexico, at the International Airport, in December 7, 2016.
Writing is my second
nature, and I enjoy also making my original healing oils blends myself.
Starting off on the right foot,
this year 2017, I created
Dr Olga Essential Oils brand, my own brand of essential oils Blends. My
favorite recipe is The Jesus Oil, which contains Frankincense, Myrrh, Copaiba,
Manuka, and Sweet Basil.
I am highly olfactive, and always been attracted to
healing oils, like for example Jesus Oil, which helped me intensify shamanic
healing once in Los Angeles in contact and networking with very knowledgeable
Oaxacan naturopathic doctors.
The Decentralized Globalization Book is now a
best-seller on Amazon.
Here is my book review, by Authorhouse;
“New book paints globalization as
more than trade, economics
Dr.
Olga Magdalena Lazin discusses various aspects, effects of ‘Decentralized
Globalization’
LOS ANGELES – After the fall of the
Berlin Wall in Europe, Dr. Olga
Magdalena Lazin
was enchanted by the complexities of the globalization
process and wanted to overcome ridiculous myth and propaganda that distract
people from understanding the multifaceted aspects of globalism and
regionalism. She writes “Decentralized Globalization” (
published by AuthorHouse),
is a far cry from other globalization literature in that it concentrates on the
significant role that civil society and civil government play in globalization.
Dr Olga’s angle is on Civic attitudes and civil society around the world.

“Decentralized Globalization”
provides a fresh, multi-dimensional viewpoint on globalization. In this it is
unlike other globalization literature, which tends to be written either in
favor or against globalization, or highlight cross-border issues such as
economic dislocation, the spread of pandemic disease, cultural assimilation,
rapid decrease in transportation times, immigration, or the growth of
drug-trafficking and crime cartels.

Lazin acknowledges that readers have
become more knowledgeable and can now shake off the narrow views on
globalization by better studying the statistical data enclosed and the facts.
Her book then aids them in further understanding by explaining the
anti-globalization movement. It is based on the premise that globalization is
more than trade and economics.

“Decentralized Globalization” cites
analysis and data proving the effectiveness of all Free Trade Agreements,
especially within NAFTA. It has done a world of good. California is perfectly
intertwined with the Mexican economy; the balance struck being a perfect model
for the rest of the World. The race for Free Trade agreements and elimination
of tariff has started long time ago with the creation of the EU, and it works.
Civic society keeps the government honest and clamors to take into
account the non-governmental interest groups. E.g. to reform Constitutions. Too
many countries will need to change from their judicial systems,
from “guilty until proven innocent to " innocent until proven
guilty". She makes a great analysis of the Amparo, in and how it affects
people’s lives Mexico.

The Mexican Amparo and the legal changes are on their way, the leader of
the movement, Lydia Cacho is set to reform  the Napoleonic Code.

About
the book: “Decentralized Globalization”
By
Dr. Olga Magdalena Lazin
Softcover | 8.25 x 11in | 462 pages |
ISBN 9781524649241
E-Book | 462 pages | ISBN
9781524649234
Available
at Amazon and Barnes & Noble

About the Author
Dr. Olga Magdalena Lazin is a UCLA
graduate in history. She is a published author and history lecturer at UCLA.
You can access and download her books at www.olgalazin. She has been teaching
history at UCLA, Cal State University–Dominguez Hills, and Cal State
University–Long Beach, as well as University of Guadalajara (UDG) and
University of Quintana Roo in Mexico for over 26 years. Her specialty is
history of food, globalization of technology, the American Constitution and
Internet history. As a hobby, she is practicing permaculture. Her radio show is
accessible 24 hours a day at
http://www.blogtalkradio.com/dr_olga_lazin.


Dr. Lazin and her Students at Quintana Roo, in Cancun,
Mexico.
Mexico And The World
Of all countries I have researched in and studied,
Mexico is the most impressive historically. I lived in Mexico, in Morelia, the
state of Michoacán for months and traveled each year many times to understand
its rich history.
I even researched and wrote a book on the Romanian Revolution
and I have
 Drawn a
comparison between the 1968 student’s uprising in Mexico City, and
 Timisoara and
Bucharest students killed by Ceausescu’s terrorists.
The youth had to pay the price for freedom in a bloody
showdown in the
University Square. The count of the dead reached
1.000. Many cadavers were
 hidden in
fridges for years to come. Such a gruesome operation had been
exposed by the press recently in 2017, and history is
being rewritten and
whitewashed by the present PSD. Memory is indeed more than
an act of
mindfulness.







































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































[1]Revised
January 2017

[2]
Ceaușescu”
is the non-modern spelling of the name.
-----------




[3]
This Empire existed between 1867 and 1918.

[4] Upon Ceausescu’s
death, the Patriarch Pipas mysteriously became the Museum’s “owner” and then
transferred title to his son Valerian Pipas, the region’s most famous violinist
.


[5] “Czechia” is rarely used in
English because native English speakers too
often do not know intuitively know how to pronounce it. The name Czechia has arisen as the short name for the Czech Republic,
which emerged with the breakup of “Czechoslovakia” in 1992. 
 


[6] Jim soon arranged for the contract
to be paid from his grant funds from U.S. foundations deposited for his
projects at
UCLA.


[7] See
(A) my 2001 Decentralized Globalization:
Free Markets, U.S. Foundations, and the Rise of Civil and Civic Society from
Rockefeller’s Rise in Latin America to Soros’ Eastern Europe
(Los Angeles: UCLA Classic Doctoral Thesis) at http://www.profmex.org/webjournal_listedbyvoldat.html 
(B) Olga Magdalena Lazín, La Globalización Se Descentraliza: Libre Mercado, Fundaciones,
Sociedad Cívica y Gobierno Civil en las Regiones del Mundo,
Prologue, pp.
15-166, by James W. Wilkie (Guadalajara
y Los Ángeles: Universidad de Guadalajara, UCLA Program on Mexico, PROFMEX/World,
Casa Juan Pablos Centro Cultural, 2007).
http://www.profmex.org/mexicoandtheworld/volume12/1winter07/prologoporjameswilkieOLbook.html
(C)
James W. Wilkie y Olga Magdalena Lazín, La globalización Se Amplia: Claroscuros
de los Nexos Globales  (Guadalajara, Los
Ángeles, México: Universidad de Guadalajara, UCLA Program on Mexico,
PROFMEX/World, Casa Juan Pablos Centro Cultural, 2011: http://www.profmex.org/mexicoandtheworld/volume17/2spring2012/Laglobalizacionseamplia.pdf
                    



[8] As in the case of Oceania always
being threatened by eternal war alternating between Eurasia
or East Asia, portrayed in George Orwell’s 1984.Cf.
my article “Orwell’s 1984 and the
Case Studies of Stalin and Ceausescu,”
in Elitelore Varieties (Edited by James Wilkie et al.):
http://elitelore.org/Capitulos/cap16_elitelore.pdf



[9] COMECON (Council
for Mutual Economic Assistance
) dates from the January 1949 communiqué
agreed upon in Moscow by the USSR (including 
its 15 Constituent Republics of 
Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Estonia,
Georgia,
Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan) and its five
“Independent” Satellite Republics (Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland,
and Romania. The communiqué involved the refusal of all these countries to
"subordinate themselves to the dictates of the Marshall Plan.”  Thus, they organized an “economic
cooperation” among these “new peoples’ democracies.” (USSR born 1922, died
1991). Cf.: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Comecon

[10]
This Empire existed between 1867 and 1918.

[11] Upon Ceausescu’s
death, the Patriarch Pipas mysteriously became the Museum’s “owner” and then
transferred title to his son Valerian Pipas, the region’s most famous violinist
.


[12] “Czechia” is rarely used in
English because native English speakers too
often do not know intuitively know how to pronounce it. The name Czechia has arisen as the short name for the Czech Republic,
which emerged with the breakup of “Czechoslovakia” in 1992. 
 


[13] Jim soon arranged for the contract
to be paid from his grant funds from U.S. foundations deposited for his
projects at
UCLA.


[14] See
(A) my 2001 Decentralized Globalization:
Free Markets, U.S. Foundations, and the Rise of Civil and Civic Society from
Rockefeller’s Rise in Latin America to Soros’ Eastern Europe
(Los Angeles: UCLA Classic Doctoral Thesis) at http://www.profmex.org/webjournal_listedbyvoldat.html 
(B) Olga Magdalena Lazín, La Globalización Se Descentraliza: Libre Mercado, Fundaciones,
Sociedad Cívica y Gobierno Civil en las Regiones del Mundo,
Prologue, pp.
15-166, by James W. Wilkie (Guadalajara
y Los Ángeles: Universidad de Guadalajara, UCLA Program on Mexico, PROFMEX/World,
Casa Juan Pablos Centro Cultural, 2007).
http://www.profmex.org/mexicoandtheworld/volume12/1winter07/prologoporjameswilkieOLbook.html
(C)
James W. Wilkie y Olga Magdalena Lazín, La globalización Se Amplia: Claroscuros
de los Nexos Globales  (Guadalajara, Los
Ángeles, México: Universidad de Guadalajara, UCLA Program on Mexico,
PROFMEX/World, Casa Juan Pablos Centro Cultural, 2011: http://www.profmex.org/mexicoandtheworld/volume17/2spring2012/Laglobalizacionseamplia.pdf
                    



[15] Readers should be aware of a key
acronym used when this paper reaches the 1990s: NPPO stands for Not-for-Private
Profit Organization
(usually a Foundation) which can differ from the more
familiar (Non-Profit Organization (NPO).
Outside the United States, the latter term tends to be wrongly understood to mean
no profit be accumulated and the NPO must show a zero balance at year end. The
former term (NPPO) is developed here to stress that profits may be accumulated
and invested to fund future activities, as long as expenditures do not benefit
private parties (except for salaries, travel, and other justified expenses as
provided in, say, a Foundation’s by-laws.)


[16]
Mexico’s
National Lottery is a Government-run Public Charity and funder of new research.

[17] The Lottery grants to PROFMEX
totaled $100,000 dollars.

[18] Jim Willkie’s statement here is
quoted from my formal Interview with him, September 17, 1992, in Transylvania,
based upon his experience as Consultant to the U.S. Council on Foundations.
See:
Olga Magdalena Lazín,
Decentralized Globalization: Free Markets,
U.S. Foundations and the Rise of
Civil and Civic Society From Rockefeller’s Latin America To Soros’ Eastern
Europe
(Los
Angeles:
UCLA, Classic PHD thesis, 2001), pp.
122-125. This book was published in 2016 by UCLA & PROFMEX, and it can be
read freely at
http://www.profmex.org/webjournal_listedbyvoldat.html


[19]
“Equivalent,” as Jim noted, means that the foreign NPPO meets (A) the test of
funding at least one of the following goals” for types of projects supported Health-Education-Welfare-Human
Rights-Science and Religion-Economy-Environment-Ecology-Publication-Literature-Charity
;
and (B) meets the test that no part of the foreign NPPOs expenditures benefit
private persons-- except for payment of reasonable expenses to cover salaries,
services, and goods needed by the NPPO to legitimately conduct the operations
chartered in its Articles of Incorporation and By-Laws.

[20]Administered by NGO Civic Activists
in each country but reporting to Soros Foundation/New York City to justify each
yearly budget.


[21] The Soros Open Society Foundations
in 44 countries benefit from the fact that Soros himself has lived up to his
commitment since1986 (to 2016 and ongoing) to donate half of his profits ($13
billon) for their activities, his personal wealth in 2016 estimated to be $25
billion. See
https://www.opensocietyfoundations.org/about/expenditures
Also, for the details of Soros
$930.7 million dollar Open Society
Foundations 2016 Budget,
which can be found by searching online for this
title.

[23]
Ibid.

-----



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50-50 share of royalties earned. By choosing this method of payment, you will be paid monthly by ACX based on half of royalties earned each time the audiobook sells. This limits your potential revenue, but also limits your risk. Learn more.
Distribution will be EXCLUSIVE distribution on Amazon, Audible, and iTunes™
 
Per finished hour
(0.0 hrs @ $0 - $0 hr = $0.00 - $0.00)

What type of distribution do you want?*

If you choose Royalty Share option above, your audiobook must be exclusive to ACX. Under this model, ACX has the exclusive right to distribute the audiobook. If you choose this option, the audiobook cannot be distributed by any entity except ACX in any market or format.Why?
Your audiobook will be sold through Amazon, Audible and iTunes via ACX, as well as wherever else you choose. Under this model, you can grant distribution rights to parties other than Audible in any market and any format. What's the Deal?
To learn more about these options, please check out What's the Deal?
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